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DOI: 10.23671/VNC.2019.73.43107

THE ROLE AND SIGNIFICANCE OF COASTAL DAGESTAN IN DEVELOPING CULTURAL AND ECONOMIC COOPERATION OF RUSSIA AND IRAN

Musaeva, Salikhat I.
Izvestia SOIGSI. 2019. IIS 34 (73).
Abstract:
Iran and Dagestan have long been linked by dynamically developing and mutually beneficial
trade and economic ties, the study of which is updated by current trends in the development of
regional cooperation between the subjects of the Russian Federation and Iran. The present research
is devoted to the study of the historical experience of interaction, during which the trade, economic,
political and cultural contacts of the peoples of Dagestan and Iran were established since the existence
of the Median state, the Achaemenid state and Caucasian Albania. The existence of rather close
mutually beneficial relations between the peoples of Russia, Seaside Dagestan and Iran is evidenced
by archaeological and numismatic materials discovered in Dagestan, written sources that confirm
the existence of such contacts over a long period. The article attempts to study the trade, economic
and military-political relations and cultural ties of the peoples of Dagestan and Iran, starting from
the era of the Sassanids, when the latter attracted the local Dagestan nobility with their armed
units as allies to protect the northern borders – the Derbent Pass. After the construction of the
defensive structures of the Derbent Fortress had been completed, representatives of a number of
Iranian ethnic groups were resettled on the territory of southern Dagestan, which, together with the
guards formed a reliable military and civilian stratum on the borders of the empire. As a result of
the close interaction of the Iranians with the local population, the Persian language, literature, and
elements of Zoroastrianism spread in Southern Dagestan. The article highlights the most important
trade routes passing through Derbent and Seaside Dagestan – the Great Silk Road, where Derbent
performed an important control mission, creating favorable conditions for the taxation of caravans
that brought great incomes to the peoples of Iran and Seaside Dagestan. The significance of the
Volga-Caspian trade route as a factor in intensive trade and economic contacts between the peoples
of Russia and Iran is revealed.
Keywords: Russia, Iran, coastal Dagestan, Derbent, trade and economic links, mutual relations, Great Silk Road, Volga-Caspian trade route.
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